ChronoBank Smart Contracts

  • ChronoBank Smart Contracts ecosystem is built around two things simple for understanding: platforms and assets. Platforms act as a base for all token operations like issuing, balance storage, transfer. Assets add interface layout and define some custom internal logic to allow implementing different behavior, for example, adding a fee to token transactions.

    Since assets define just internal behavior, there are so-called ChronoBank asset proxies which provide an ERC20 standard interface (described in ERC20Interface.sol) and acts as a transaction proxy. It allows to add/change token logic by updating asset implementation and to recover a wallet access in case of key loss.

    While looking into details it could be spotted that our Smart Contracts ecosystem is more than just platforms and assets. These core entities represent important but small part of all functionality.


    The next foundational block in the ecosystem is a top-level contracts module (a handful of managers) that provides all needed interfaces to organize flexible and powerful tools.

    PDF version for detailed preview

    ContractsManager plays a role in the central registry which holds references to all services registered in a system.

    To get to the central registry contracts should be added by a contract owner of ContractsManager or those contacts that are allowed to do so (based on ACL in StorageManger).

    It’s worth mentioning that a set of managers (top-level and others) do not store their data directly in storage, but use instead Storage contract to pass responsibility for saving data. This Storage contracts besides StorageManager are included in Shared Storage set of contracts.

    UserManager contract role is to provide system-wide user registry where simple users and admins (CBE) live together. It also provides a part of multisignature infrastructure by keeping a number of admins required to confirm operations.

    PendingManager contract provides the rest of multisignature functionality by holding and tracking operations performed in a system and carrying them out when a critical number of confirmations were received.

    ERC20Manager contract keeps track of all ERC20-based tokens registered in a system.

    Events History is a submodule which performs like a gate for all events happening in a system. All system managers are using the same instance of EventsHistory (see MultiEventsHistory contract), other contracts created during the system’s work could use different event histories instances.

    Labour-Offering Companies (LOCManager) is a particular module that organizes work of ChronoBank with third-party companies and allows them to participate in the ChronoBank ecosystem.

    The next part of modules is designed to make users’ life easier by providing additional layers of abstraction on top of existing core contracts.

    Key contracts


    PlatformsManager makes it possible to manipulate multiple platforms and create brand new platforms.


    AssetsManager allows users to build their own tokens, organize their crowdsale.


    WalletManager gives the ability to create wallets for storing tokens and organize multisignature access to its balance and transfers. Note: multisignature mechanism is independently implemented and isn’t based on PendingManager contract.


    Besides aforementioned modules there are also modules that manipulate tokens (TIME and other ERC20 tokens) that allows to:

    • unlock system’s functionality for usage where it is needed to stake some amount of tokens to perform an operation;
    • pay for unique functionality available in a system (such as creating a new platform, issuing a token, starting a token crowdsale, creating a wallet and some others).

    For providing such ability for a system, there were introduced a couple of contracts that are coupled with Deposit and Feature Fee modules.

    The last but not the least is Additionals modules that provided extended functionalities for ChronoBank ecosystem:

    Crowdsale — the key contract is CrowdsaleManager and it organizes token crowdsale. It was made available to use only through AssetsManager.

    Voting — the key contract is VotingManager which arranges poll creation where users that hold their TIME tokens in TimeHolder could vote to participate in system’s decisions.

    Exchange — the key contract is ExchangeManager which coordinates exchanges between different tokens and allows users to sell/buy tokens for other tokens.

    A more detailed version of the scheme contains internal entities and connections that participate in module’s work.

    Dive in!

    ChronoBank ecosystem has its own token called TIME that fuels work of many functions. We gather them in one place to provide a more specific overview of their responsibilities.

    PDF version for detailed preview


    Main contracts:

    • timeholder/TimeHolder.sol

    Deposit holder. Allows to deposit/withdraw TIME tokens. Users, who have deposits, are allowed to use some key features of the system such as creating ERC20 tokens, starting crowdsale for it, create exchanges and so forth.

    Users could deposit and withdraw at any time and those changes will appropriately update functionalities that are bound to TimeHolder (such as voting and so forth).

    Dev notes: New functionalities and new contracts could take advantage of using TimeHolder’s shares to secure and restrict their features: developers are able to add new contracts and use ListenerInterface to observe changes in TimeHolder’s deposits — this will unlock an access to notifications about deposit/withdrawal actions made by the user.

    PollManager (VotingManager.sol is under construction)

    Main contracts:

    • vote/PollManager.sol.

    This piece of functionality takes place in the system and is responsible for voting functions. It serves as a central point to enter and manage (create, navigate, stop) polls.

    In general, it aggregates the following functions:

    • creation of new polls,
    • tracking the number of currently active polls,
    • getting paginated lists of all created polls.

    Users, who have TIME deposits, allowed to perform a vote connected actions according to TIME deposit value.


    Main contracts:

    • exchange/ExchangeManager.sol.

    It’s an exchange registry that holds information about created exchanges and provides some utility methods for managing them.

    It serves as the entry point for creating new exchanges.

    Standalone Exchange allows users to buy/sell assigned ERC20 token for ether, as long as there is available supply.

    Contract owner maintains sufficient token and ether supply, and sets buy/sell prices. In order to be able to sell tokens, the user needs to create an allowance for this contract, using standard ERC20 approve() function, so that an exchange could take tokens from the user when the user orders a sell.

    CBE users are permitted to manage fee value against which an exchange will calculate the fee.

    Some methods might take a fee in TIME tokens.


    Main contracts:

    • assets/PlatformsManager.sol.

    Managing system’s and users’ platforms is possible because of this contract. It allows to create and manipulate platforms and considered as an entry point to go through user’s platforms.

    Provides system-wide ability to manage user’s platforms. This contract allows to:

    • create a brand new platform,
    • get a list of platforms owned by a user,
    • attach (or detach) any platforms outside the system or created somewhere by users themselves.

    Some methods could require paying additional fee in TIME tokens during their invocation


    Main contracts:

    • assets/extensions/PlatformTokenExtensionGatewayManager.sol

    That is a backend contract specifically created to aggregate main functionality for token manipulations and make less burden on a token creation process as well as on other functions.

    Key responsibilities are to:

    • create assets (with and without fee),
    • create token crowdsale and remove them.

    Some methods might take a fee in TIME tokens.

    Dev notes: Since this contract is designed to be used by delegatecall it doesn’t inherit from any contract (except FeatureFeeAdapter) and you should be careful when a need will arise to add more functionality by inheritance because the contract uses storage layout from TokenExtensionRouter and it should be preserved.


    Main contracts:

    • wallet/WalletsManager.sol,
    • wallet/Wallet.sol.

    Allows to manage multisignature wallets, i.e.

    • create wallet;
    • add wallet;
    • remove wallet.


    For more details please refer to

    Stay tuned, guys! And, as always, thanks for your support!

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